Level 2Learn to Speak Adonese
By Matt Ragan

Lesson Two: Getting Started with Nouns and Verbs

Adonese is a grammar-coded language. You can tell what part of a sentence a word is just by its ending. This is most easily illustrated by introducing a new student to nouns and verbs and having him/her use them in very simple sentences.

Nouns

All singular subject nouns end with -el, which is the most basic noun ending (the -el form is how a word will be listed in a dictionary). When it is a plural subject noun, the ending becomes -enn. All singular object nouns end with -as. Plural object nouns end with -iae.

The plural forms, coming as they do at the end of words, can sometimes throw off new speakers at first. Therefore, pronunciation is provided below to help you see and hear the difference.

Subject Nouns

    Singular = -el
    Plural = -enn (en-nya)
Object Nouns
    Singular = -as
    Plural = -iae (i-yay or ee-ay, the former is eastern Adon dialect, the latter western Adon)
Examples

    A man reads a book
    Ua vinel darlad ua lyfas

    Men read books
    Vinenn darlad lyfiae

    A man reads books
    Ua vinel darlad lyfiae

Definite/Indefinite Article

English has "a" and "the" (a man, the man), Adonese uses "ua" and "gwur" (ua vinel, gwur vinel). Just like in English and many languages, the indefinate article is often optional and only used when distinction is desired or needed (discussing the state of "man," as opposed to "a man").

    a = ua
    the = gwur

Personal Pronouns

Pronouns that are the object take the Object Noun Suffix. For instance, "it" is "gilas" and "us" is "chiliae" when used as the object of a sentence.

Singular

    I = Kil
    You = Til
    He = Vil
    She = Lil
    It = Gil
Plural
    We/Us = Chil
    You all/Yall = Thil
    They/Them = Gwil

Verbs

Infinitive Verbs (the "to do something" form) end with -ad. When presented in a dictionary, the -ad form will be the one presented.

Verb Suffixes

    Infinitive = -ad
    Present = -is
    Present Participle = -aen
    Past = -ar
    Past Participle = -inn
    Future = -u
    Imperative = -ee
    Less common, presented here for reference only
    Transitive = -oz
    Intransitive = -guz
Example
    To Read
    To Read = Darlad
    Reads = Darlis
    Reading = Darlaen
    Read (past) = Darlar
    Read (past participle) = Darlinn
    Will Read = Darlu
    (You) Read! = Darlee
    To Be
    To Be = Ryad
    Is/am/are = Ryis
    Being = Ryaen
    Was = Ryar
    Been/Were = Ryinn
    Will Be = Ryu
    (You) Be!/Become! = Ryee
    To Eat
    To Eat = Porad
    Eats = Poris
    Eating = Poraen
    Ate = Porar
    Eaten = Porinn
    Will Eat = Poru
    Eat! = Poree

Verb Negation

"Ba" in front of a verb makes it a negative.

    Was = Ryar
    Was not = Ba ryar
    Will Eat = Poru
    Will not Eat = Ba poru
    I am = Kil ryis
    I am not = Kil ba ryis
    Die! (I want you to die) = Trygee
    Don't die! = Ba trygee

Two Useful Adverbs

Just for reference. We'll provide the two most useful adverbs in any language here:

    Sha = Yes
    Eea = No

Concluding Notes

  1. Verbal Nouns: Adonese, as with many other languages, has the ability to use a verb as a noun. For instance, the verb "Kyfranad" means "To Combat" but it can also be used as the noun "Kyfranel" which means "Combat." It is very easy to make verbal nouns in Adonese, simply change the grammar-code suffix from a verb suffix to a noun suffix (either subject or object).
  2. Noun Splices: Adonese makes use of noun splices to make new terms and concepts by combining two separate nouns. For example "Data Card" would be as separate nouns, data (Bodel) and card (Gwirel). In Adonese, a noun splice is formed by removing the suffix from the lesser nouns and saying the words together. When writing the new noun using romanized bavasel, the two parts are separated by a roman hyphen. Therefore in the example of Data Card, the lesser noun is Data (bodel). This is because "Data" is used to describe what kind of card is being discussed and not the other way around. Therefore it would be written "Bod-Gwirel."
  3. Order: Generally, sentences in Adonese are Subject - Action - Object (a man read a book, not a book was read by a man). However, this order will be changed around in literary, poetic, and lyrical Adonese as suits the whim of the author. And because of the the language's natural grammar-coding, rhyming is extremely easy with Adonese. Since subjects and objects are coded, one can jumble things quite badly and the listener/reader will still understand the sentence.

Vocabulary

    Lesson 2 Nouns

    1. Armor (personal/body) = Gwarthel
    2. Armored Personnel Carrier = Gwardrathgirbedel (Also just the letters 'GRG' pronounced 'ga-ra-ga' which is the same as saying 'APC' - 'ay-pee-see')
    3. Assault = Ymsodel
    4. Attack = Sodel
    5. Book = Lyfel
    6. Building = Adilel
    7. Card = Gwirel
    8. CAV (Combat Asssault Vehicle) = Kygel (Also 'Kyfran-Ymsod-Girbedel' or just the letters KYG, add the noun grammar suffix to form Kygel)
    9. Cavalry = Gorwithennel
    10. Child = Grithel
    11. Combat = Kyfranel
    12. Data/Information = Bodel
    13. Die (for playing games) = Sybel (Dice = Sybenn)
    14. Gunship = Nybagel
    15. Infantry = Rathenel
    16. Man = Vinel
    17. Model = Kinlunel
    18. Motor = Girvel
    19. Officer = Sithogel
    20. Opponent = Isgarel
    21. Ruler/Measure Device = Mydridel
    22. Food = Porthel
    23. Soldier = Rathel
    24. Tank/Armor/Panzer = Gwardel
    25. Target = Adamel
    26. Terrain = Gwintirel
    27. Vehicle/Conveyance Machine = Girbedel
    28. Wreckage = Drylel
    29. Car/Civilian Vehicle = Gradel
    30. Bike/cycle = Daronel

    Lesson 2 Verbs

    1. To Armor (a soldier) = Gwarthad ("to don armor")
    2. To Armor/Fortify = Gwardad
    3. To Assault = Ymsodad
    4. To Attack = Sodad
    5. To Be = Ryad
    6. To Bring = Dodad
    7. To Buy = Kaesad
    8. To Combat/Fight = Kyfranad
    9. To Die = Trygad
    10. To Do = Tykad
    11. To Drink = Fedad
    12. To Eat = Porad
    13. To Go = Myndad
    14. To Have = Orad
    15. To Know = Adnathad
    16. To Leave = Gadad
    17. To Lose = Galonnad
    18. To Mount = Gorwithad
    19. To Move = Sudad
    20. To Open = Nagorad
    21. To Own = Proudad
    22. To Play = Elishad
    23. To Read = Thyfad
    24. To Roll = Powlad
    25. To See = Melinad
    26. To Shoot = Gryad
    27. To Support = Plydad
    28. To Talk = Garinad
    29. To Use = Definad
    30. To Win = Darinad


Practice

Say the following sentences for practice.

    I win.
    Kil darinis.

    You were owned.
    Til ryinn prouar.

    We are playing.
    Chil ryis elishaen.

    I shoot it.
    Kil gryad gilas.

    (You) bring the drinks.
    (Til) dodee gwur fediae.

    Yes, we will fight you.
    Sha, chil kyfranu tilas.

    She will support the CAVs.
    Lil plydu gwur kygiae.

    Tanks attacked targets.
    Gwardenn sodar adamiae.

    An officer fought mechanized infantry.
    Ua sithogel kyfranar girbedoz ratheniae.

    The opponent will attack the officer.
    Gwur isgarel sodu gwur sithogas.

    No, the loser will buy food.
    Eea, gwur galonnel kaesu porthas.

    (You) roll the dice!
    (Til) powlee gwur sybiae!

    They brought gunships.
    Gwil dodar nybagiae.

    A tank shot me.
    Ua gwardel gryar kilas.

    I will read the book.
    Kil thyfu gwur lyfas.

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